Conus consors
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
SubClass: Prosobranchia
Genus: Conus
Species: consors
Common Names
Singed Cone
Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, India, Kenya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mozambique, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, South Africa, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Vietnam, Yemen, Somalia
Taxonomy and Biology
Organism Type: Conus Snail : Dwells in moderately deep to deep waters.
Scattered distribution in the Indo-West Pacific region including the east African Coast ( Yemen, Oman, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and South Africa ), Bay of Bengal to Taiwan and the Philippines via the Gulf of Thailand ( Pakistan, India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Indonesia, Brunei, Philippines and Taiwan ) and southwards to New Guinea and the Solomons.
Species Map
Small (Approx 20k) version
General: Neurotoxins
Presynaptic neurotoxins
General: Myotoxins
Not present
General: Procoagulants
Not present
General: Anticoagulants
Not present
General: Haemorrhagins
Not present
General: Nephrotoxins
Not present
General: Cardiotoxins
Possibly present
General: Necrotoxins
Not present
General: Other Toxins
Clinical Effects
General: Dangerousness
Severe envenoming possible, potentially lethal
General: Rate of Envenoming: Unknown
General: Untreated Lethality Rate: Unknown but lethal potential cannot be excluded
General: Local Effects
Local pain only
General: Local Necrosis
Does not occur, based on current clinical evidence
General: General Systemic Effects
Variable non-specific effects which may include headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, tachypnoea, respiratory distress, hypotension, dizziness, collapse or convulsions
General: Neurotoxic Paralysis
Severe flaccid paralysis can occur.
General: Myotoxicity
Does not occur, based on current clinical evidence
General: Renal Damage
Does not occur, based on current clinical evidence
General: Cardiotoxicity
Rare, usually secondary
General: Other
Insufficient clinical reports to know
First Aid
Description: First aid for Conus (cone snail) stings
1. After ensuring the patient and onlookers have moved out of range of further strikes by the cone snail, the bitten person should be reassured and persuaded to lie down and remain still. Some will be terrified, fearing sudden death and, in this mood, they may behave irrationally or even hysterically. The basis for reassurance is the fact that many cone snail stings do not result in envenoming and death is a rare outcome.
2. The sting wound should not be tampered with in any way. Wiping it once with a damp cloth to remove surface venom is unlikely to do much harm (or good) but the wound must not be massaged.
3. All rings or other jewellery on the bitten limb, especially on fingers, should be removed, as they may act as tourniquets if oedema develops.
4. If the bite is on a limb, a broad bandage (even torn strips of clothing or pantyhose) should be applied over the bitten area at moderate pressure (as for a sprain; not so tight circulation is impaired), then extended to cover as much of the bitten limb as possible, including fingers or toes, going over the top of clothing rather than risking excessive limb movement by removing clothing. The bitten limb should then be immobilised as effectively as possible using an extemporised splint or sling.
5. If there is any impairment of vital functions, such as problems with respiration, airway, circulation, heart function, these must be supported as a priority. In particular, for bites causing flaccid paralysis, including respiratory paralysis, both airway and respiration may be impaired, requiring urgent and prolonged treatment, which may include the mouth to mask (mouth to mouth) technique of expired air transfer. Seek urgent medical attention.
6. Do not use Tourniquets, cut, suck or scarify the wound or apply chemicals or electric shock.
7. Avoid peroral intake, absolutely no alcohol. No sedatives outside hospital. If there will be considerable delay before reaching medical aid, measured in several hours to days, then give clear fluids by mouth to prevent dehydration.
8. If the offending cone snail has been killed it should be brought with the patient for identification, but be careful to avoid touching a still living cone snail, as it can sting anyone attempting to pick it up. There are no safe places to hold a cone snail. If in doubt, either leave it alone or use an object such as a stick to push it into a sealable container.
9. The cone snail sting victim should be transported as quickly and as passively as possible to the nearest place where they can be seen by a medically-trained person (health station, dispensary, clinic or hospital). The bitten limb must not be exercised as muscular contraction will promote systemic absorption of venom. If no motor vehicle or boat is available, the patient can be carried on a stretcher or hurdle, on the pillion or crossbar of a bicycle or on someone's back.
10. Most traditional, and many of the more recently fashionable, first aid measures are useless and potentially dangerous. These include local cauterization, incision, excision, amputation, suction by mouth, vacuum pump or syringe, combined incision and suction ("venom-ex" apparatus), injection or instillation of compounds such as potassium permanganate, phenol (carbolic soap) and trypsin, application of electric shocks or ice (cryotherapy), use of traditional herbal, folk and other remedies including the ingestion of emetic plant products and parts of the snake, multiple incisions, tattooing and so on.
Treatment Summary
Treatment for significant cone snail envenoming is support of respiratory function and management of hypotension, associated with rapid, potentially lethal flaccid neurotoxic paralysis. No antivenom is available.
Key Diagnostic Features
Local pain, rapid development of major flaccid paralysis
General Approach to Management
All cases should be treated as urgent & potentially lethal. Rapid assessment & commencement of treatment is mandatory. Admit all cases.
Antivenom Therapy
No antivenom available
No Antivenoms
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