Conus Terminology Glossary
Periostracum: Outer shell layer consisting of mainly sclerotised proteins.
Columella: Abapical column structure forming the central axis for development
Relative shell weight: Absolute weight (grams) per millimeter of shell length giving an estimate of shell thickness.
Apex: Adapical tip of shell
Protoconch: Prematamorphic whorls of the shell
Teleoconch: Postmetamorphic whorls of the shell
Teleoconch sutural ramps: Interspace between subsutural ridges on Teleoconch
Sub-sutural ridges: Ridges on Teleoconch
Shoulder: Widest part of shell body forming margin between shell body and spire.
Spire: Area of shell adapical of the shoulder excluding the shell body
Lip: Outer edge of aperture
Aperture: Opening of shell
Anal/exhalent notch: Notch between the shoulder and outer lip of aperture.
Siphonal canal/fasciole: Canal/fasciole on columella of shell.
Adapical: Toward the apex
Abapical: Toward the base
Adapical third: Third of shell towards apex
Whorls: One complete coil of the spiral shell.
PMD: Position of maximum diameter of last whorl
Post nuclear spire whorls: Whorls of spire excluding those constituting the protoconch
Body whorl/Last whorl: Whorl that forms the shell body excluding the spire.
Axial threads: Threads in a direction perpendicular to the shell axis
Radial threads: Threads in the direction of the shell axis.
Axial streaks: Streaks in a direction perpendicular to the shell axis
Spiral cords: Cords sprialing in a direction perpendicular to the shell axis
Paucispiral: Number of whorls unknown but less than two.
Multispiral: Number of whorls unknown but more than two.
Midbody line: An area of a shell approximately midway between its apex and columella.
Shoulder carina: A sharp-edged ridge on the shoulder of the shell
Spiral ridges: Ridges spiraling in a direction perpendicular to the shell axis
Striae: A thin narrow groove, channel, line or band
Tubercles: A small projection or outgrowth
Granules: Small grains, pellets or particles.
Flames/flammules: Wavy, axially elongate areas of colour
Tentmarks: Triangular areas of colour with pointed apices.
Ground colour: Underlying base colour of shell
Shell colour: Colour of appearance of a shell
Spot: Round area of colour
Lines: Solid usually axiallly or spirally oriented areas of colour
Dash: Narrow or rectangular areas of colour spirally or axially oriented.
Flecks: Regularly or irregularly shaped areas of colour.
Bars: Wide to rectangular usually spirally elongate areas of colour.
Band: Solid mainly spiral and sometimes axial uninterupted areas of colour broader than streaks.
Dots: Very small points of colour.
Clouds: Irregularly shaped areas of colour, not elongate and less contrasting with ground colour than blotches.
Blotches: Irregularly shaped areas of colour, not elongate and contrasting with ground colour.
Streaks: Rectangular areas of colour broader than broad lines with variable orientation.
Canaliculate: With one or more longitudinal grooves or channels.
Nodulose: Having wart-like nodules or fine knobs
Carinate: Ridged with carina or keel
Punctate: With small spots, points or depressions