Clinical Toxinology Resources Home


In addition to the toxins acting on haemostasis, some venoms, notably those of certain viper species, also contain direct haemorrhagins. These toxins damage the vascular endothelium, promoting bleeding and are generally zinc metaloproteinases. They are potentially lethal.

Snakes considered to have medically significant haemorrhagins.

Scientific name Common name Effect
Agkistrodon spp. American copperheads Disintegrins & haemorrhagins
Bitis spp. African puff adders, Gaboon vipers etc Disintegrins & haemorrhagins
Bothrops spp. Central & South American pit vipers Disintegrins & haemorrhagins
Calloselasma rhodostoma Malayan pit viper Haemorrhagins
Crotalus spp. (selected) North American rattlesnakes Disintegrins & haemorrhagins
Daboia russelii Russell’s viper Haemorrhagins
Echis spp. Saw scaled vipers Disintegrins & haemorrhagins
Trimeresurus spp. Green pit vipers Disintegrins & haemorrhagins
Vipera spp. (selected) Selected European vipers Disintegrins & haemorrhagins


Return To Snake Venoms Overview Page

Return to Snakes Home Page