Clinical Effects of poisonous frogs unlikely to cause significant poisoning if the toxins are innoculated or ingested.

On current evidence, it appears unlikely that this species would cause significant adverse effects in humans. However, it cannot presently be stated with certainty that this species will be harmless. There is clinical experience of frog/toad skin poisoning of humans covering only a very limited range of species, mostly Bufo toads, with few case reports and no clinical trial treatments. The following clinical description is therefore based on limited evidence from other species and should be used as a guide only, not as definitive information and its applicability to this species is uncertain.

For Bufo toad species, the major risk appears to be ingestion of poison, either by mouthing or licking the toad skin (general restricted to children), or consumption of products containing toad skin toxins (notably herbal products, especially Chinese aphrodisiacs). The latter may not document their toad toxin content. Following exposure to the toxin the patient may rapidly commence repeated vomiting, often associated with abdominal pain, and sometimes diarrhoea and/or collapse. There is potentially significant fluid loss from the gut. In an hour or more, sometimes sooner, the cardiotoxic effects of the Bufotoxins will become apparent, with fast or slow pulse, low blood pressure, then heart arrhythmias, which can be associated with high circulating potassium levels. Death may rapidly ensue.

For poison arrow frogs, again the major risk appears to be ingestion of poison, either by mouthing or licking the frog skin (general restricted to children), although use as an injected poison (suicide or homicide) cannot be excluded. Clinical effects in humans are not documented for these toxins, but based on experimental evidence, both neurotoxicity (flaccid and/or spastic paralysis) and cardiotoxicity may be possible. Based on the use of these toxins on poison darts, it is possible that poisoning could be rapid, severe and potentially fatal.





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